“Time may be the fire we burn in.” Despite the fact that we might be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have tried to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance gets to be a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is really a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe in the eons to come.
For those who seek to discover truths concerning the workings from the cell, holding back the floodgates of energy is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be interested in very specific cell properties that occur at critical junctions in the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes away while their properties can be exploited is akin to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one solution to the issue of your slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature where all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists are able to seclude moments with time, returning repeatedly to research that instant in the past.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has grown to be an important industry that makes customized products for up to every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the industry in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your numerous types of products to choose from expertise in which ones are most effective may elude the average consumer. In order to provide a summary of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are among those items that many people never take into consideration until they quit working. Made to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels of the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists try to avoid the thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day in the event it did. A career’s amount of samples may be lost in a single afternoon– years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Even though such a scenario looms ominously inside the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to ensure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies will be the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Even though gas industry has utilized this system for several years, MMR Technologies was the very first company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes back the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated inside the cycle so that the expansion of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is really a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The unit allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it provides an inside power supply it can be used for that transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you wish to understand the minimum temperature and just how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures have already been maintained through the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures right down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are supplied in order to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a lot of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
Consistent with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mix of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and enable on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every twenty four hours, turning it away in order that the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. has a long tradition of making ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In reality, with four decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the industry. When the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was one of the primary to utilize Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low has developed a modern compressor that is certainly designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens right down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the standard cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide comfortable access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to fit a range of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long-term from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers using more than fifty years of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to only -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil in the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has been manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than two decades, starting with its creation of the first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the creation of the 1st -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the initial manufacturer to offer a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, has become applied to a variety of insulated vessels created for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending on their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be easily accessed. Due to the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as 12 months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to this sort of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to buy. A number of these companies as well as their products are reviewed in the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are only a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage and also organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing section of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to develop biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the entire brand of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suited to cells that could be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also ideal for storing hazardous materials which may cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, like contaminated-blood bags that happen to be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the states and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
According to Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has were able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is they might be custom-designed.
One among Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in numerous countries away from The United States and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is one of the explanations why Quantum Technology makes an effective two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained within the system. The helium out of this refrigerator is reliquified for usage time and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask brand of items that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six the latest models of can be found with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each one of these models is available using a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids to prevent pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to offer coolant retention for samples stored in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by several companies throughout the usa. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and give features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems are available in four sizes and have capacities of up to 6,000 vials. Along with a number of the standard features contained in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates experience of liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to minimize evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can also be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are best for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 2 weeks. Every one of these units come equipped with a small-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to save large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the quantity of vials that can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the most commonly used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to visit shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is normally guided by three primary issues, the first that concerns the issue of whether they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort believe that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate continues.
An additional consideration which comes under consideration when purchasing cryogenic tubes is definitely the material that these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which may negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids is easy to remove with all the proper care, plus some companies like Axygen are turning to new polished molds that do not require the application of releasing fluids. Glass, however, warms rapidly but is likewise subject to fracture as a result of microchannels which could form in the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be vunerable to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has additionally been an issue of some contention in this particular industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the interior pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas inside the tube is enough to force cells and fluid with the lids of several non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is generally preferred as the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is likewise used, it features a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge which had been demonstrated once the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Created for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip plus a silicon washer. A unique ridge on each cap makes handling easier, bringing about one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® make of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials are available in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which may be used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and therefore are pressure tested within a vacuum chamber to guarantee the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently designed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of many outstanding attributes of this tube is that it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include an array of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that happen to be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified to get sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof in a microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the business warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it has developed an extensive catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is manufactured out of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. These are suitable for that preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction means they are exceptionally durable, and they are often flame sealed or stored using a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with many different features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, as well as simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be purchased with selected styles. Most of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that are developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions such as iron, chromium, or nickel which are typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials is made to snap closed in a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. comes with an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has the option for selecting from many different externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which might be colored for identification. Most of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, as well as the polypropylene material from where they can be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures inside an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus to in developing its line of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials that include reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes might be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has been sterilized.
Storage inventory systems certainly are a critical part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes which make them challenging to keep trace. Labels can be brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the most popular methods for containing samples is definitely the canister and cane. Employing this technique, some vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer system is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures contributing to less evaporation in the freezer, plus decreases the researcher’s being exposed to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the level of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is really a cardboard or stainless steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to arrange as much as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International specializes in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colors to suit almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to be viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in some models to support tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers which contain storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are typically keyed to avoid misalignment and give temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for quick retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing selection of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks which can be constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In fact, many of its items are sold as standard accessories with a few of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are designed from steel and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Almost certainly, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones which will be used for many years. An order made today may last for a decade. Essentially, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not only buying products for their own reasons, they can be buying for successors. The buyer should look into what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated due to improper storage. A bit money that was saved at the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly seem like the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards built-in to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these kinds of products important. Appointing a permanent position that accounts for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is probably the best ways to assure the integrity of the samples.